The technological age, where ink has been substituted by software, has brought literature to a crossroads. The era of digital omniscience — the precepts of its zeitgeist — has changed literature. The technological component, its praxis, has deeply transformed the way we create, communicate and read literature. It is the hostile takeover by the electronic medium, where the reader has become a surfer to whom a novel or a poem is, more than anything, downloaded.
But even through mouse clicks and pdfs, literature is a beacon in this transformation; it casts a critical eye on these paradigm shifts and provides a perspective which will convey meaning in and for the future. The 21 st century is defining itself as a paradoxical era. With globalisation and interconnectedness we have the world at our feet, one without boundaries. Yet, whilst this interaction — through instant messaging, email and smartphones — has ostensibly brought us together, it has also riven us apart.
We are obliviously distant. The type of language which has been adopted along with this new technology is fostering a kind of illiteracy that prevents any possible comprehension of a classic. Thomas Mann? You need to be a rocket scientist to read that. The west may have higher levels of literacy and education than it has ever had in the past, but there is an increasing apathy and impatience for the way we imbibe language.
Now we have new verbs: we tweet, we skype — we utter the dictatorship of the hinc et nunc. The challenges regarding education are therefore immense, namely, the unresolved debate of how these new isms of the www.
We often make the assumption that history and social change is progressive. Modern technology has developed at an astounding rate andit is tempting to see it as inherently working towards some superior end.
Do we feel this with literature? In the past, with the page only being accessible to a privileged, homogeneously educated few, there was a distinctive hierarchy and highbrow consensus of what texts people should read. There was value placed in the mysticism of historic works and the struggle to comprehend them. We clung to tradition. In everyday life too, people had to confront difficult language.
Religion ran its vein through society, and held the monopoly on discourse for centuries. It was only in the s that the Vatican ruled that mass could be conducted in the vernacular rather than Latin. Although this traditional practice was hardly egalitarian, stepping outside the pascalian autopilot of everyday language opens the doors of reflection.
It allows us to discover that we are indeed losing something in our living language. Jeanette Winterson recalled how, brought up in a northern English mining townin the s, everyone was familiar with the King James VI Bible.History of English Literature : English literature dates back exceeding five centuries.
The literature not only represents authors or writers from almost every part of the world but also it had untapped almost every major genre of writings that one could possibly imagine. You will also know about the style of writing of the poets and authors that prevailed back then. In this post, all the major ages are focused on. Moreover, the PDF version of every age is uploaded singly. People communicated the poems and literary works orally during the period under consideration.
Writing was not given much importance. The Anglo-Saxon age comprises about years.
Beowoulf is one of the most important works of that age. It is an epic poem which throws light on a young warrior in Geatland who fought for his people. It was probably completed in the 8th Century. Norman Conquest: Invasion of the Normans in England in the year They brought the French language to England.
French was adopted as the new language for the parliament. Later they also picked up the French language. You can download the Old literature PDF from here. The most respected and famed writer of the middle age was Geoffrey Chaucer. In the 13th century, the English literature prospered at a distinguished rate.
Chaucer introduced the Iambic Pentameter. Medieval theatre included Mysteries, Miracle and Morality plays. We will be discussing the Miracle and Morality plays only because these two are the ones which are widely discussed upon. A Miracle plays — They are also known as Saints play as they present a real or fictitious account of their life.
They are the principal kind of vernacular drama of European Middle Ages. By the 13th century, they became vernacularized. In miracle plays, the actual story revolves around the main characters and on the other hand, the other characters were short reckoned or undervalued.
Comic scenes were also a part of Miracle plays. Moreover, there were devil characters present in those plays. The structure of the play is basically unpleasant.
It is based on the biblical story of the life of the religious persons. The Miracle plays were banned in England because of the teachings of the Roman Catholic. The language of the play shifted to English because that made the play less religious.
Moreover, they were performing in town festivals. Most plays were about Saint Nicolas and Virgin Marry. B Morality Plays — In morality plays, the protagonist of the play generally meets various moral attributes through personification. The other characters in the play signify moral qualities and the hero of the play represents mankind and humanity. Supporting characters in the play are personifications of either good or bad.Here are different ismseach representing a philosophical, political or moral doctrine or a belief system.
In selecting terms for the list, I have deliberately avoided any word which apply ism to a personal name, so that Marxism doesn't count although it is otherwise an ideal candidate for the list. I also excluded isms which do not refer to a specific belief system, such as impressionism an artistic movement or alcoholism a disease.
Despite these omissions, enough remain to leave an ism in every pot, including beliefs about proper government, God, and the nature of existence itself.
Of the terms on the list that are of a religious nature, most are Christian, which is not unexpected, but I'm open to adding isms from other world religions. I hope you have found this site to be useful. If you have any corrections, additions, or comments, please contact me. Please note that I am not able to respond to all requests. Please consult a major dictionary before e-mailing your query. Links to this page may be made without permission.Romantic writers sought to celebrate the individual, the imagination, and as in Gothic writing, the macabre.
Typically, writers sought to depict life as it truly was, nothing fanciful, simply true to its time and place. This was also rather dark at times, revealing the harsh realities of life in matter-of-fact tones.
The spiritual connection between humans and nature was a driving force in this movement. An individual can discover truth through spiritual reflection, which transcends reason and sensory experience. Writing will reflect the region, its dialect, culture, and landscape.
We are taken out into more isolated and remote regions, where the elements of the landscape — weather, distance, isolation — play a significant role in the lives of the people. In this age, technology made significant strides, for the better and the worse; airplanes and automobiles, expanding our ability to travel to new places, also had an impact on modern warfare.
Scott Fitzgerald, and Ernest Hemingway. Writers often wrote about disillusionment and relied on literary devices such as irony, paradox, and intertextuality. Life is at times absurd, difficult events cannot be explained, and bad things seem to happen for no reason. Connect with Us. Reading Writing. Share on Facebook Pin. Image from Penguin Random House. Image from Dover Thrift.
Image from MacMillan. Image from Simon and Schuster.Brief History Of English Literature - AKSRajveer - Literature Lovers - UGC NET ENGLISH
Image from Grove Atlantic. Next Page.The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the late 15th to the early 17th century. It is associated with the pan-European Renaissance that is usually regarded as beginning in Italy in the late 14th century. Like most of northern Europe, England saw little of these developments until more than a century later. The beginning of the English Renaissance is often taken, as a convenience, to bewhen the Battle of Bosworth Field ended the Wars of the Roses and inaugurated the Tudor Dynasty.
Renaissance style and ideas, however, were slow to penetrate England, and the Elizabethan era in the second half of the 16th century is usually regarded as the height of the English Renaissance. The English Renaissance is different from the Italian Renaissance in several ways. The dominant art forms of the English Renaissance were literature and music.
Download: English Literature Pdf.pdf
Visual arts in the English Renaissance were much less significant than in the Italian Renaissance. The English period began far later than the Italian, which is usually considered to begin in the late 14th century, and was moving into Mannerism and the Baroque by the s or earlier.
In contrast, the English Renaissance can only be said to begin, shakily, in the s, and continued until perhaps England had a strong tradition of literature in the English vernacular, which gradually increased as English use of the printing press became common by the mid 16th century. By the time of Elizabethan literature a vigorous literary culture in both drama and poetry included poets such as Edmund Spenser, whose verse epic The Faerie Queene had a strong influence on English literature but was eventually overshadowed by the lyrics of William Shakespeare, Thomas Wyatt and others.
Typically, the works of these playwrights and poets circulated in manuscript form for some time before they were published, and above all the plays of English Renaissance theatre were the outstanding legacy of the period.
The English theatre scene, which performed both for the court and nobility in private performances, and a very wide public in the theatres, was the most crowded in Europe, with a host of other playwrights as well as the giant figures of Christopher Marlowe, Shakespeare and Ben Jonson. Philosophers and intellectuals included Thomas More and Francis Bacon. English thought advanced towards modern science with the Baconian Method, a forerunner of the Scientific Method. Whereas from the perspective of literary history, England had already experienced a flourishing of literature over years before the time of Shakespeare, during the last decades of the fourteenth century.
For this reason, scholars find the singularity of the period called the English Renaissance questionable; C. Skip to main content. Module 8: Renaissance Love Poetry. Search for:. English Renaissance The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the late 15th to the early 17th century.
Queen Elizabeth I standing on a map of England. Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury, circa View Your Records. Click on any of the following links to view a quick tutorial designed by our Library Instruction team to help you with your research. Use the databases to find citations, abstracts and full text articles.
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To be or not to be Balme Call Number: PN B25 Contents: Performers and actors -- Spectators and audiences -- Spaces and places -- Theories of theatre 1: historical paradigms -- Theories of theatre 2: systematic and critical approaches -- Theater historiography -- Text and performance -- Performance analysis -- Music theatre -- Dance theatre -- Applied theatre -- Theatre and media. W47 Drama -- History and criticism.
Theater -- History. The Essential Theatre by Oscar G. Brockett; Robert J. Ball Call Number: PN B72 Theater -- United States -- History. Subject Guide. Joy Urbina. Schedule Appointment. Social: YouTube Page. Finding articles Use the databases to find citations, abstracts and full text articles. Report a problem. Subjects: Theatre Arts. Tags: theatre.Brittonicisms in English are the linguistic effects in English attributed to the historical influence of Brittonic speakers as they switched language to English following the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon political dominance in Britain.
The research into this topic uses a variety of approaches to approximate the Romano-British language spoken in Sub-Roman Britain on the eve of the Anglo-Saxon arrival. Besides the earliest extant Old Welsh texts, Breton is useful for its lack of English influence. Brittonic influence on English is considered to be very small, but a number of publications in the s have suggested that its influence may have been underestimated. Some of the developments differentiating Old English from Middle English have been proposed as an emergence of a previously unrecorded Brittonic influence.
There are many, often obscure, characteristics in English that have been proposed as Brittonicisms.
White enumerates 92 items, of which 32 are attributed to other academic works. Visser Walther Preusler and by Patricia Poussa  were marginal to the academic consensus of their time.
Perhaps more famously, Oxford philologist and author J. The review of the extent of Romano-British influence has been encouraged by developments in several fields. Significant survival of Brittonic peoples in Anglo-Saxon England has become a more widely accepted idea thanks primarily to recent archaeological and genetic evidence. The works of Sarah Thomason and Terrence Kaufman  have been used in particular to model borrowing and language shift. Endorsed particularly by Hildegard Tristramthe Old English diglossia model proposes that much of the native Romano-British population remained in England while the Anglo-Saxons gradually took over the rule of the country.
Over a long period, the Brittonic population imperfectly learnt the Anglo-Saxons' language while Old English continued in an artificially stable form as the written language of the elite and the only version of English preserved in writing. After the Norman conquerors removed Anglo-Saxon rule, the language of the general population, which was a Brittonicised version of English, was eventually recorded and appears as Middle English.
For instance, Moroccan Arabic Darija and other colloquial varieties of Arabic have had virtually no literary presence in over a millennium; the substantial Berber substratum in Darija and likewise, the Coptic substratum in Egyptianthe Western Aramaic and Hebrew substrata in Levantinethe Syriac and Persian substrata in Iraqietc.
The nature of the Anglo-Saxon conquest continues to be debated to this day, and linguists such as Richard Coates have suggested that the lack of any clear, unequivocal evidence in favor of a Celtic influence on English vocabulary and syntax suggests a widespread folk migration rather than a settlement of a minority warrior elite.
This claim depends on assuming that Old English is unusual as a Germanic language in its use of two forms of the verb to be ; however, all other Germanic languages also exhibit the two verbs be with similar semantics, and so the evidence probably is more suggestive of a common inheritance than substratum influence. The development from Old English to Middle English is marked particularly by a change from syntheticism expressing meaning using word-endings to analyticism expressing meaning using word order.
Old English was a synthetic languagethough its inflections already tended to be simpler than those of contemporary continental Germanic languages. There are different word endings for case roughly speaking, endings for the direct object of a sentence, the subject of a sentence and similarly for two other grammatical situations not including instrumental varying for plural forms, gender forms and two kinds of word form called weak and strong.
Brittonic, however, was already a highly analytic language and so Brittonic peoples may have had difficulty learning Old English. It has been suggested that the Brittonic Latin of the period demonstrates difficulty in using the Latin word endings. Language innovations occurred primarily in texts from Northern and South-Western England. It has been speculated that these were the areas with the greater density of Brittonic people.
In the Northern zone of that period, there was partial replacement of the Anglo-Saxon rule by Norse invaders. This situation can variously be seen as mitigating the emergence of Brittonic English or as the direct cause of the Northern language innovations i.
Middle English creole hypothesis. However, the attrition in word endings, as witnessed by the loss of the nasal endings m,nbegan before the Norse invasion.
Introduction to Theatre (THEA 1313): Intro
The effects of accent, which may or may not have been substratal,  together with Norse influence is perhaps the most accepted hypothesis explaining inflexion attrition. Following are several suggestions for other Brittonicisms in the English language. Like those previously mentioned, they have not been widely accepted by linguists. In Old English, constructions using wurth were used similar to Dutch worden and German werden where today motion verbs like go and become are used instead, e.
English construction of complex sentences uses some forms which in popularity may suggest a Celtic influence. Celtic and English have formal identity between intensifier and reflexive pronoun.
The Northern subject rule was the general pattern of syntax used for the present-tense in northern Middle English. It occurs in some present-day dialects.